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Printing enterprise spare parts management to do so, practical and economical!

Time:2023-11-27 Views:421
Spare parts reserve

The degree of spare parts reserve refers to the percentage of spare parts that can immediately meet the maintenance needs of the equipment as a percentage of all spare parts required (within a foreseeable period of time)

It is not only impossible to achieve 100% spare parts reserve, but also extremely economical. After the spare parts reserve degree exceeds 80%, the increase of cost and the increase of reserve degree is almost geometric.

The reasonable spare parts reserve degree is 80%-85%, but it cannot guarantee the supply of important spare parts and sustainable cost reduction, and a series of measures need to be taken to ensure that the cost of spare parts can be reduced at the same time to meet the needs of equipment maintenance.

Traditional ways to reduce costs

Here‘s how German companies traditionally reduce spare parts costs.

(1) Only the inventory of the total warehouse is controlled. The inventory of many so-called "black warehouses" similar to small vaults has not been counted, such as workshops and even team warehouses.

(2) From the perspective of the procurement department, a large number of spare parts flowed into the uncontrollable "black warehouse". The turnover period of spare parts funds on the book is very short, in fact, quite the opposite.

(3) Reduce the number of orders, which leads to the accumulation of unnecessary spare parts in the first-line maintenance department. In a specific short period of time can reduce the cost of spare parts procurement, but the lack of balance, stability, in the long run is ineffective or even harmful.

(4) Use existing but unsuitable buildings as warehouses, such as old factories or office buildings. Although the construction cost is reduced, the personnel and management costs are increased.

(5) The use of low-quality personnel, such as workers who cannot be fired for union reasons. Although the salary is low, but can not concurrently other jobs, can not use modern office tools.

New Thinking

When considering spare parts storage, the following questions should be considered regularly and consistently.

(1) How much downtime per hour will be lost.

(2) When the spare parts are not available, to what extent the maintenance workers will stop waiting for materials.

(3) How high is the additional cost of emergency procurement of spare parts?

But in practice, these issues are rarely considered. Spare parts economic management not only involves spare parts procurement itself, but also involves the maintenance and transformation of production equipment.

In fact, with the exception of the decision makers who bear the pressure, almost everyone wants spare parts stocks to remain at a high level. In the case of high costs and large reserves, problems in organizational structure, work procedures, communication and coordination, and work efficiency are covered up, and people can work leisurely and freely.

Methods to reduce spare parts costs

PART 01 Reduce Spare parts reserves

The important thing is to use actual demand as the yardstick. The approach should be bottom-up, not top-down.

(1) Pick out the spare parts that are no longer used and finally scrap them. German enterprises, like domestic enterprises, also have several years or even several years of unused spare parts lying in the warehouse. Compared with a large number of human and material resources consumption, many people are more reluctant to assume the responsibility of "asset loss".

(2) Find out the relationship between equipment and spare parts, which spare parts are available on which equipment. This allows the same spare parts in different equipment to be planned as a whole, thereby reducing spare parts reserves.

(3) Statistical delivery and procurement supply cycle to optimize spare parts reserve.

(4) Select spare parts storage for important equipment, such as bottleneck equipment and high-load equipment, which can be determined according to factors such as the risk factor of the equipment.

(5) Determine the minimum and maximum reserves for each type of spare parts. Volta Cologne Motor factory based on spare parts supply time, material and spare parts corresponding equipment quantity and other factors to determine.

(6) Optimize the order quantity. In Germany, with the increase of the number of orders, the degree of credibility is improved, and the price discount is also increased; However, the increase in the number of orders also means the increase in the use of funds and the increase in management costs, so the best balance zone must be found between the two.

(7) Establish enterprise standards to reduce the types of spare parts. With sales of 20 billion euros in 2001, Decusa is the third largest German chemical company, with an annual consumption of about 1,500 tons of hydraulic lubricating oil. Since the establishment of the enterprise standard for oil selection in 1984, oil consumption has decreased slightly, from more than 500 types of oil in use to 70, when the scale of equipment has been expanded by three times.

(8) Periodically check the implementation of the above measures.

PART 02 Reduce warehouse management costs

(1) Transfer the spare parts of low value that need to be continuously consumed to the warehouse of the maintenance workshop. This can not only avoid distracting the energy of the repository management personnel, reduce the number of management personnel, but also avoid the waiting of maintenance personnel.

(2) Train warehouse management personnel. High-quality managers can not only improve work efficiency, but also put forward valuable rationalization suggestions. In 2000, a warehouse worker at Volt‘s electrical plant in Cologne was rewarded with a rationalization proposal of 500,000 marks, while the value created was 2.5 million marks.

(3) Centralized management of spare parts in the "black warehouse". This may lead to an increase in personnel and administrative costs, but as compensation, it can reduce the burden of the "black warehouse" management personnel who also need to work, and can accurately control the amount of spare parts.

(4) Use modern warehouses. Not only can reduce the time in and out of the warehouse, but also reduce the number of maintenance personnel and warehouse management personnel. There are about 2,000 modern overhead warehouses in Germany. The elevated warehouse of the Wesseling factory of the de Kusa company stores 22,000 kinds of spare parts materials worth 19 million marks, and the area is only 1600 square meters, and the staff is only l5 people, and there are three people responsible for providing supply services for the site, and three people are responsible for the quality acceptance of the goods.

(5) Establish spare parts management information system. In Germany, computers are widely used in equipment management, most of the enterprise management software is the German SAP R2 or R3 equipment management information system, spare parts management is an important part of it. The application of computer management of spare parts can efficiently summarize and analyze the frequency of replacement of spare parts, the time of procurement in place, etc., so as to better control the minimum and maximum reserve amount of spare parts, and thus reduce the reserve funds occupied by spare parts.

Some Suggestions

For most domestic enterprises, due to the different background of economic development, some experience in Germany is temporarily unable to learn, such as the huge investment in modern warehouses and management information systems, but the following points can be used for reference.

(1) Spare parts and materials with strong versatility and slightly higher value are kept in a central repository. Such as reducer, motor, fan, pump, etc., which can shorten the actual capital turnover cycle. Of course, this requires the central library to have a high level of management and convenient transportation.

(2) Establish enterprise standards for spare parts materials. Some of the largest German companies, such as Volkswagen, Mercedes-Benz, Decusa, have their own corporate standards. A few years ago, in a production plant of a domestic company, there were several cranes with the same model and different speed ratios of large vehicles, which not only increased spare parts storage, but also increased the burden of maintenance.

(3) Regular statistics of the consumption cycle and procurement cycle of main spare parts and materials. Therefore, the storage of spare parts and materials can be reasonably defined, and those spare parts that are not used for a long time are excluded from the spare parts supply. The minimum and maximum reserves can ensure the safety and economy of spare parts supply respectively.

(4) Batch procurement, network bidding, quality tracking. Volta Cologne motor factory electrical components procurement, at the beginning of the year selected GE and Siemens two suppliers, according to the amount of settlement at the end of the year. Important spare parts from Decusa have a "history number" similar to an ID number that effectively tracks service life. Online bidding can minimize shady practices
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