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How to avoid frequent device failures

Time:2024-01-02 Views:406
Because of our production site management for the serious neglect of equipment, equipment will often appear "symptoms"! First-class factories always maintain equipment, third-rate factories repair equipment every day, a word difference, but the efficiency is several times different.

What‘s the difference?

The difference lies in the understanding of modern management, the implementation of management systems, and the use of the most advanced equipment with backward concepts.

Modern team production, more and more inseparable from a variety of processing, auxiliary equipment, no stable operation of the equipment, there will be no normal survival basis for the team.

In contrast, around us, the equipment is frequently against our wishes, frequent failures, energy interruption, oil leakage, poor spare parts, loss of function and other problems caused by these equipment, always interfere with the normal work, and the production site organization activities are always in a state of interruption. Over time, the team leader changed from the "combat elite" who organized production to the "fire fighting elite" who organized emergency repair and reported.

Similarly, in the face of frequent equipment failures, equipment management departments and professional maintenance personnel are too tired to cope with, work east and west, fighting fires everywhere, but still can not get rid of the bad luck of being complained about by front-line personnel, and ultimately, resulting in front-line monitors and equipment maintenance personnel at the same time exhausted, helpless.

How to achieve zero failure?

Some people may ask, according to the zero failure point of view, the equipment can not be used forever, here we have to distinguish two different concepts is natural aging and forced deterioration.

The so-called natural aging is that although the use of the correct method, but over time, the equipment has undergone physical and chemical changes, the initial performance gradually decreased.

The so-called forced deterioration refers to the failure to work according to the proper method, which artificially promotes the deterioration. For example, the refueling place is not refueled, or the amount of refueling is too little or the cycle is too long. There is not due equipment cleaning and so on, that is, what should be done is not done, which will cause the deterioration of the equipment.

In this way, the service life of the equipment is lower than its due life, which is much shorter than the life of natural aging. Therefore, the significance of the zero fault view is to guide us to correctly understand the fault and do what should be done to avoid forced deterioration and delay natural aging.

So far, the reason why there are still many failures is often not to grasp the real cause of the failure. Before a failure occurs, there are usually some small, hidden defects. If this unobtrusive potential defect that eventually leads to failure is paid attention to and improved in time before the fault occurs, the fault can be eliminated. It can be seen that the obvious treatment of potential defects is the principle of "no fault".

In order to actually advance this work, we derive five strategies for achieving zero failure based on the possible causes of failure:

1. Have the basics
The so-called basic conditions refer to cleaning, refueling, fastening and so on. The failure is caused by the deterioration of the equipment, but most of the deterioration is caused by not having the basic condition 3 elements.

2. Strictly observe the conditions of use
The conditions of use of the machine are determined at the time of design. When used strictly in accordance with the conditions of use, the equipment rarely fails. For example, voltage, speed, temperature and installation conditions are determined according to the characteristics of the equipment.

3. Restore the device
A piece of equipment, even if it has the basic conditions to ensure the conditions of use, because it is difficult to be perfect, so the equipment will deteriorate and produce failure. So make the implied deterioration visible and restore it to its normal state. This means that we should always carry out the correct inspection and preventive repair of the equipment.

4. Improve design deficiencies
Some failures cannot be eliminated even after taking the above three countermeasures, which are often caused by deficiencies or errors in the design, manufacturing and installation of equipment. This kind of failure should be carefully analyzed and these defects should be improved.

5. Improve people‘s quality
All the countermeasures must be implemented by people, and people are the most fundamental in the process of achieving zero failure. First of all, everyone should have a serious attitude, professional spirit, secondly, have a correct understanding of the fault, and finally, improve the professional skills of operation and maintenance personnel.

In general, we should do the following aspects of work in daily work: activities to prevent deterioration: correct operation, preparation, adjustment, cleaning, refueling, fastening, etc.; Activities to determine deterioration: check the conditions of use, daily and regular inspection of the equipment to find hidden trouble early; Recovery of deterioration activities: timely elimination of hidden dangers and deterioration, so that the equipment back to normal state.

Take a step-by-step approach to self-maintenance

Everyone wants the equipment to be efficient. As far as equipment is concerned, its efficiency involves two aspects of people, one is the production and use of personnel, and the other is maintenance and repair personnel. If the personnel of both sides regard themselves as separate parties, we are the producers only use, you are the maintenance, the quality of the equipment by you, of course, will not produce any good results.

It should be seen that production use and maintenance are two aspects of a whole, which is like the two wheels of a bicycle, only the two cooperate with each other, in order to give full play to the efficiency of the equipment. The production and use department is not only enough to produce and use, it should also take up the basic work of equipment maintenance, that is, "activities to prevent deterioration." Only when the production and use department has done a good job of "preventing deterioration activities", can the maintenance department give play to the real power of the full-time maintenance means it undertakes, and can the equipment be truly effective maintenance.

We call the maintenance activities carried out by the production and use department to "prevent equipment deterioration" as the center of "full participation in independent maintenance activities", which is usually called independent maintenance. In the independent maintenance activities, in order to give full play to the ability of the equipment, it is necessary to implement "their own equipment by their own management", to be a person who can control the equipment. Therefore, in addition to the ability to manufacture products, operators must also have the following four aspects of ability:

1. The ability to spot anomalies
The "abnormal discovery ability" that can find equipment anomalies is not simply that a fault has occurred or an anomaly is found when it is bad, but that when a fault seems to occur, it seems to be bad, it can be at a glance at the causes of these faults and other anomalies, only in this way can it be called the real "abnormal discovery ability".

2. Ability to handle anomalies correctly and quickly (handling resilience)
For the abnormal image that has been found, only by restoring it to the original correct state can the original function of the equipment be played, and it should be able to decide whether to report to the superior and maintenance department according to the extent of the anomaly, and how to deal with it.

3. Condition setting ability
The ability to detect anomalies often depends on the level and experience of individuals, and the difference in level and experience may affect the detection of anomalies. In order to prevent this kind of appearance, it is necessary to decide on a certain amount to judge whether the equipment is normal. The judgment basis should be quantitative, taking temperature as an example, its quantitative should be determined as "should be below XX degrees", and can not be vaguely described as "no abnormal fever". It should be emphasized that it is more realistic to establish a provisional benchmark and revise it several times to establish a more appropriate benchmark than to delay the implementation of the benchmark because of the importance of determining the accuracy of the benchmark.

4. Maintain management capacity
Equipment failure and then maintenance is always no prevention first, for this reason, you must really comply with the established standards, such as "cleaning, refueling standards", "autonomous inspection standards" and so on.

How ability is formed, it mainly depends on the continuous learning and accumulation in the work, so the work itself is a kind of learning, because of the continuous improvement of ability it can achieve more work results, among them is an interdependent and mutually promoting relationship.

To train operators who can control the equipment, to form a system of independent maintenance, on the one hand, we should pay attention to the training of talents, on the other hand, we should effectively improve the work according to their actual ability, so as to achieve the real effect, that is, the effect can be maintained. When carrying out independent maintenance, it is not possible to hope to solve many problems at once, so the goal and content are organized into 7 steps, which is "step-by-step independent maintenance". Ideally, do each step thoroughly, and when you reach a certain point, move on to the next.

7 steps to self-maintenance

Step 1: Initial cleaning

The initial cleaning is to thoroughly clean dust, garbage, etc., centered on the equipment. We need to check the cleaning change, check to find problems, find potential defects in the equipment, and deal with them in time. At the same time, cleaning can help the operator to care for the equipment.

Step 2: the source, the difficult part countermeasure

In order to maintain and improve the results of the initial cleaning in the first stage, it is necessary to eliminate the root causes (sources) of dust and pollution, and to this end, countermeasures such as elimination, capping and sealing can be taken. For the parts that are difficult to maintain, such as refueling, cleaning, decontamination, etc., effective countermeasures should also be taken to improve the maintainability of the equipment.

Step 3: Write cleaning and refueling benchmarks

Based on the experience gained from the activities of the first and second steps, a temporary benchmark is prepared to maintain the basic conditions of the equipment in their own charge, such as cleaning, refueling, fastening, etc.

Step 4: Comprehensive examination

In order to give full play to the inherent functions of the equipment, it is necessary to learn the structure, function and judgment benchmark of the equipment, check the appearance of the main parts of the equipment, find the defects of the equipment and make it recover, and master the necessary inspection skills. In addition, the previously written benchmarks can be considered for continuous improvement to facilitate inspection.

Step 5: Self-inspection

Based on the cleaning criteria, refueling criteria, and inspection criteria prepared in the third step, add the content learned in the fourth step, and fully follow it, which is the independent inspection criteria. In the process of learning and execution, it is necessary to constantly learn and be familiar with the operation and action of the equipment, the correlation between quality and equipment, etc., and the ability to operate the equipment correctly and detect anomalies early.

Step 6: Organize and rectify

Expand the scope of activities from the existing equipment-centered activities to peripheral equipment and the entire workshop, and develop to achieve and maintain the image of the entire workshop on the basis of mastering the capabilities of the above 5 steps. The finishing mentioned in this step indicates the jigs, semi-finished products, defective products, etc., in the workshop, and formulates the management benchmark, which should completely reduce the management image of things and things and simplify as much as possible. The so-called rectification is to comply with (maintain) the benchmark and gradually improve, so that the operator is easy to comply with. The workshop implements visual management and standardization of management.

Step 7: Complete self-management

Through the activities of the previous 6 steps, a lot of results have been obtained, and the personnel have been greatly exercised, so the seventh step is to establish the awareness of continuous improvement, constantly carry out the PDCA cycle, and formulate new group activity objectives suitable for themselves in combination with the company‘s policies and objectives, so as to achieve thorough self-management.
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